News

Dems Lash out but Obama Did Far Worse

The President’s job is never easy. Each decision is likely to make someone angry or upset. And it seems that each can also be quite controversial. But there is one thing we should all agree on: keeping America and her citizens safe is always the right decision. And yet, when President Donald Trump made the recent decision to carry out an airstrike on Iranian military leader Qassem Soleimani to avenge and protect her people, many were critical.

And most of the balking seems to be coming from the Democratic Party. But why is that?

House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and her fellow party leaders claim that the President has overstepped and taken advantage of his power as commander-in-chief by ordering the airstrike on Soleimani because he did not first get permission from Congress to do so.

The Speaker wrote that she would be proposing a new war powers resolution, “mandating that if no further Congressional action is taken, the Administration’s military hostilities with regard to Ira cease within 30 days.”

In addition, Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer says that Trump has no authority to start a war with Iran. Senate Minority Whip Dick Durbin and Senator Tim Kaine are upset enough to have introduced a new war powers resolution that would block Trump from any further action on Iran.

According to a statement put out by the two senators on Friday, “The resolution requires that any hostilities with Iran must be explicitly authorized by a declaration of war or specific authorization for use of military force, but does not prevent the United States from defending itself from imminent attack.”

However, it seems that these same leaders had no problem with the president carrying out similar attacks overseas just a few short years before without Congressional consent. In fact, former President Barack Obama was pretty much given free rein to do whatever he wanted regarding military operations.

And according to The Washington Times, he didn’t seek approval for any of it. They reported that in 2015 that by April of that year, Obama had carried out over 2,800 military airstrikes and other operations in both Syria and Libya.

“The U.S. military has been conducting strikes in Iraq for 10 months, and began striking directly at targets in Syria last September as part of Mr. Obama’s announced campaign to degrade the capabilities of the Islamic State.”

They noted that Obama had carried out at least 1,458 strikes in Iraq and 1,343 in Syria.

So how did he get away with all of these and keep Congress off of his back without their permission or sometimes even their knowledge?

Well, he claims that his powers as Commander-in-Chief gave him that right. In addition, his administration used the “Authorization for Use of Military Force” (AUMF) resolution that was passed in September of 2001. The AUMF says the “the President has authority under the Constitution to take action to deter and prevent acts of international terrorism against the United States.”

The Times also mentioned Obama’s use of a 2002 AUMF resolution that allowed for the removal of Saddam Hussein from leadership in Iraq. And even after new authorization was created by not passed by Congress, Obama continued to use military force in Iraq and Syria without anyone else’s say so.

We might excuse his unsanctioned actions against the Islamic State as fighting justly against terrorism, not all of his military efforts were quite so noble.

For instance, in 2011, he used American military forces to help cripple the Libyan leader Colonel Moammar Gadhafi. Do you think he took to Congress before this action? Absolutely not. And as of June 2011, nearly three months later, with airstrikes to Libya still taking place, the former president had still not looked for such approval.

This means that he knowingly and deliberately violated the 1973 War Powers Resolution, also known as the War Powers Act, which states that the president must either get congressional approval before such action or make sure that US forces are pulled out within 60 days.

And yet many in Congress at that time had no problem with his violations. Hillary Clinton, who was secretary of state at the time, even backed it, saying, “We came, we saw, he died.”

So why is Trump being called out for this one-time act against a known terrorist? He even let Congress know about what he was going to do and still, it wasn’t good enough.

Their patriotism is dead, just like Soleimani.

Comments (83)

  1. I do agree with all the concepts you’ve offered to your post.
    They’re very convincing and will definitely work.
    Still, the posts are too short for novices.
    May just you please extend them a bit from subsequent time?
    Thanks for the post.

  2. We may all get lucky and Shoemaker,Piglousie and the rest of the PARASITES in D.C. will all be on the same plane that goes down.

  3. Another crazy hysterical liberal Democrat !! Just crawl back into your hole.

  4. If you want to clean up government then abolish the parties. Vote for the person. Seat the representative we elect randomly. Reduce the number of legislators in the house.
    Require votes on all issues to be private to prevent following the party line. Enough “you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours” to make each other rich.

  5. There are not more than a very few in congress that could ever become “known” as an Elder Statesperson! For the most part they are politicians and everything they vote, or negotiate, or handle in any way is done through the scope of very partisan politics! Their only other consideration is how there family members can benefit from any decisions they cannot themselves benefit from. It is a big corrupt organization. If there were more than two investigative reporters left in the USA, that could still probably be cleaned up by virtue of “reporting” the goings on to the people! So much of this could be shut down and turned back into a body that works together and does less for themselves and more for the Folks with a decent, honest Fourth Estate!

  6. Actually, what they are trying to do is have Congress run the country, not the president. Everything they do is done to thwart anything Trump does, and make him ineffective as president. Boy, are they in for a surprise in November!

  7. Obviously, he is NOT a good Catholic—if you could call him Catholic at all.

  8. I don’t know what bible you’re reading, but in the bible Christ is asked if he has seen Satan. When his reply is put in Hebrew, the answer comes out as “oh bama”. Check it out.

  9. Obama NEVER bailed this country out of the toilet. He put us into it, and Hilary was ready to flush it down the toilet. There were some idiots from BOTH parties who called his family that, and that was terrible, but I take great offense that some little pip squeek like yourself would have the audacity and stupidity and ignorance to put all of us followers of the constitution in that category and call us liars. My skin may be white, but I marched for equal rights with people of all races, colors, and creeds for equality for all. Don’t you dare call us liars. You need to take your head out of your butt and start questioning everything you are being told by the liberal press, or you will be far worse off as a person than anyone or any one group you put down.

  10. Excuse me, but the president was totally within his right to take the action he did against a man who was more than willing to slaughter countless men, women, and children because he was given that RIGHT BY THE CONSTITUTION! If he were to actually declare war, which he did not do, then he has to get Congress’s approval. Again, he did nothing wrong. If anything, Nancy Pelosi and her cohorts are the ones acting like dictators. Again, another young person who has been taken in by the socialist media, spouts again their propaganda without ever looking at the facts and obviously not knowing jack about how the three branches of government are to be run. You remember those, don’t you? And they’re not the ones AOC says–executive, house and senate. They are the executive, judicial, and legislative branches. Check it out. You might actually learn something and find out how ignorant you really are.

  11. No, we are not out of our minds. However, I recommend that you find yours by starting to question everything that the left says and does instead of blindly serving as an agent for the media communist propagandists. We who have been around quite a while recognize socialist and communist lies because we grew up with them and saw the horrible results in other countries that were taken over by them. Ask yourself, if socialism/communism is so great, why do we see so many people fleeing them and going to capitalist countries instead of the other way around? Or are you afraid of the REAL truth?

  12. Sounds like you’ve been smoking the same stuff he has. I recommend you read the other comments below and quit being a communist/socialist puppet.

  13. About the only thing you say here that is true is that we need to put term limits on the house and senate. However, the rest of your dirade doesn’t make a lick of sense! Trump has NOT lied to the American people. Unfortunately, there are so many young people like yourself who believe everything the socialists/communists tell you. They make accusations based on emotions and not on facts. My generation was taught to question EVERYTHING that either party says or does. Your generation accepts everything the left tells you. Trump has been the best president we’ve had in a long time because he puts American citizens first, where the others have put us last. We have been the silent majority for too long, and many have found their voices in Trump. If your vote was not counted, as you say, you may be here illegally, so yes, it won’t count, as only citizens of this country are entitled to vote. If you are referring to the electorial college, then be aware that if it is dissolved, then unless you live in California or New York, then your vote won’t be worth the paper it’s written on because they will end up running the country together because of their large population. Question EVERYTHING the news media tells you, and stop being a puppet for socialist propaganda.

  14. Point well-taken. I was a registered democrat for close to 40 years, but when I saw what was really going on the last few years, I walked away and am now a registered republican. It’s not the democrat party any more. It’s symbol should be the hammar and sickle (communist)

  15. You mean the socialist/communist party, don’t you? The real democrat party has been swallowed up by them.

  16. Really? How old are you? Old enough to drink the kool aid? Get real. Trump has done more for this country than the last few presidents. If you knew how the government is supposed to be run by the three branches–executive, judicial, and legislative—you would know just how stupid that remark is. Problem is, even many of the new house representatives don’t know either, and obviously, neither does the socialist news media.

  17. The worst ever!

  18. Don’t forget that he and Hillary sold the guns to the terrorists in Benghazi. The guy who delivered them was Mark Turi to UAE so they would be harder to trace. The 2 of them may as well have pulled the trigger on the Americans that died there.

  19. I agree! President Trump has done so much to rebuild this country. The Demonrats are EVIL. They are the Communist party now and it is very sick. They need to watch the video by Kitty Werthmann, she was young in Austria when the Germans took over. She tells the whole story, and most people need to watch it, it is well worth the time.

  20. You are right on, one thing that has always bothered me is why the Demonrats never checked into Obama said he was. They never even tried. I guess they were too busy seeing how much they could get away with. One thing that has caused so many problems is George Soros, the man is a devil for what he did as a kid and everyone that takes money from him sells their soul to the devil, and he wants to take this country down.
    I did see a picture of an Iranian, he said he was going to show a list of all of the people that took bribes for them to get their money from Obama. Now that would be interesting.

  21. Amazing how you can ignore facts like his family that had nothing to gain from their comments said that he was born in Kenya. You have been had by the propaganda machine for the communist Democrat Party. Like sheep to saluter you go.

  22. Wow you are so blinded by TDS ! Obama is and was a traitor supplied tanks and planes to Muslim brotherhood m16s to ISIS and on and on and on . He did more harm to America then Trump could fix in 4 years but we are getting there.

  23. Have some more koolaid and relax, its getting better every day

  24. Ovomit’s paternal grandmother said over and over that she was present at the moment of Ovomit’s birth in what is now called Kenya, then she so very conveniently died. How nice of her to do that shortly before Ovomit’s first term.

  25. Dim-O-Rats do not want to govern. They want to rule. There is a big difference.

  26. The last three words of your post is what I really hope for. Don’t get me wrong, we certainly do not need a one party system, but the other party needs to not be this so called Democrat Party. We need another party that actually represents a large portion of our people but at the same time is a loyal and patriotic party. That is not the so called Democrat Party of today. They represent Nazis and communists and fascists and socialists and progressives and liberals. All of those are actually in practice the same thing, and that thing is tyranny and oppression. They talk like Nazis and behave like Nazis, and since Nazis and all the above mentioned entities are in fact the same, they must be those. They are not loyal to our country and they need to be eliminated from our government, and all the lower governments as well. Democrats and Republicans have worked well together in the past and they should now, but these so called Democrats today are not loyal to our country, and since they violate their oath of office, they should be ejected from the Congress in disgrace. None are worth while and all of them should be gone.

  27. Obummer could do anything
    he wanted Dickie Durbin set on his 🐴 and drop nose Chuckie Shummer double stand for the dumbocrate liberals 🤭🤭🙄😖

  28. You must be less than 3 years old.

  29. Israel planned to assassinate Soleimani in 2015, and Obama tipped him off so that the plan failed. You are a vast abyss of ignorance.

  30. Did you actually manage to complete elementary school?

  31. Does anyone remember when the great Senator Kaine was in the Vice Presidental debate as Hillary’s running mate and his answer to a debate question about abortion ? He had the gall to go on and on sbout his being a devout Catholic, having been educated in Catholic schools and being a good catholic all his life, but felt it would be ok as VP to support the Democratic notion that abortion was OK.

  32. It’s called life in the fast lane. All the lies from Obama in the first month. Democrats in office, obama and pelosi crackin’ the whip. Lying to John Q Public and racking Republicans over the coals, that was January 8 years ago. obama in office started with lies. pelosi on his shit tales in the power mode. pelosi still thinks she has all the power, continuing with all the lie with her coharts the democratic party falling IN LINE, saying YES MOMMY to pelosi. She and a lot of democrats have less the a year. Good politics for America will start next year, draining the swamp and asking the illegals to leave, before they get thrown out. Congress can start taking care of America and GEt RID of a bunch of laws that America does not need!

  33. Come on they DID NOT FORGET. This IS todays democrats. Worthless Liberal Socialist Morons.

  34. I think that maybe the only persons really qualified to be politicians are prostitutes. At least, when they screw us, we might enjoy it. Neither Obama or Trump are totally good or bad. We, the American public, have allowed ourselves to become complacent. We should view our leaders with all the trust we view the media, not much. But at the same time,we need to show due respect to the offices of our leaders, so that they can function credibly. That said, we should not condone fools, the incompetent, or the ignorant. Quit voting them in. The voters will and can ultimately decide terms of office.

  35. Hey u guy! Jan. 11, 12:06 am. Did u know that when Osama/Obama was elected senator in his lib state that a hospital in that same state made up a Job for that horses face of his wife for over $300,000? And who paid for her college education? The taxpayers! Weather u work for someone or run your own business, Everyone has to make a living! Pres Trump has a business like all others before he was elected to b my president. All u Trump haters should go live in a communist country but not live there with the American dollar. U peopled should b thankful that this country finally has a great president that wants to take care of the American citizens!!!

  36. Dude, the classmates of Odumer do not even remember him as being in their class. Check it out and see he was a made up pos and still is to this day. He went into the White House poor and came out a multi-millionaire. Can you guess why clueless????

  37. Before you make any comments, you should learn the American/English grammar!

  38. R u talking about osama/Obama?

  39. Actually, the antichrist, if actually a real human, would be Obama. You need to research the description of the antichrist, including being foreign born and highly charismatic, which President Trump is neither.

  40. I think I can answer the question. I saw a video on utube of college students being randomly interviewed on their thoughts about Trump. The kid being interviewed claimed it was OK for Obama to have done some of the same things Trump did because Obama “was a gentleman”. And there you have a brand new mindset. A college student giving a free pass to Obama for everything he did because he was a “gentleman” (at least in public). Sad.

  41. You people claim to be Christians read your bible you may find out that trump is in fact the Antichrist in the flesh

  42. you are out of your mind??? and a liar, just like trump! really, well that worst president inherited the 2008 recession.. while he was bailing the country out of the toilet- ppl like you were call his family- apes, monkeys, gorillas and [email protected]@ers. even repub senators were calling them names.. run along, come back when you don’t have LIAR written on your forehead!

  43. really???? trump went after iran because he is a trigger happy draft doder who has been impeached in an election year. he had 3 years to go after the general- nothing. he could have gone after the general in sept when he decided to send troops out of syria- and turkey his friends (where trump has investments and bldgs) to bomb and kill syrians- and allowed – turkey- russia and IRAN to take over syrians land

  44. Finally someone is telling the truth about lawless and corrupt trump. But these dumb ass trump worshippers won’t believe the truth. Trump has lied so much they don’t know the difference between a lie and the truth

  45. You are either brainwashed or just plain crazy

  46. that is a lie- wheres your proof??? opening that hole in your face w/o backing up your comment- jerk!

  47. I think you people are out of your minds

  48. that is a lie created by ppl like you- he has proved where he was born and NEVER said he was born in kenya.. if you can’t tell the truth stfu.. you sound exactly like that POS trump.. trump is donating his salary???????? really???? guess what fool- trump is making his money back x3 whe he insists on holding events at his properties that should be held at the WH! then he gets to bill tax payers for the entire bill form his staff, family and guest.. he gets that big fat check right back.. do some research! he is a scammer, lying cheating pos- the money was irans money frozen here until they agreed to the deal and was also signed by several other countries incl canada..obama didn’t have a company fool- both he and his wife are ivy league graduate lawyers- he taught constitution law. trump is a trigger happy draft dodger who has been impeached in an election year.. he is also a greedy pig who used money from a charity for his own atm.-https://www.politico.com/news/2019/11/07/trump-charity-foundation-misuse-067411- theres more

  49. obama did n’t do it because he was a trigger happy draft dodger who was impeached in an election year- obama didn’t steel money from a charity for his own expenses-https://www.politico.com/news/2019/11/07/trump-charity-foundation-misuse-067411. obama didn’t cheat scam students out of their money from a fake university-https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/03/31/522199535/judge-approves-25-million-settlement-of-trump-university-lawsuit

  50. When the “smoke clears” and the records of BOTH presidents are compared, President (?) Obama is FAR, far behind POTUS Trump, both in accomplishments and CORRECTIONS by UNDOING all of the HORRIBLE damage done by the Democrats AND Obama. Obama was the worse president BY FAR ever, and was TREASONISTIC in nature by attempting to introduce Socialism/Communism to the U.S. OBAMA may FLEE the U.S. when all these scandals are revealed which MAY result in PRISON time, and rightfully so as per the U.S. Constitution. Team Trump and his allies 2020.

  51. He did not declare WAR. Under the constitution as commander & chief he can prevent acts of terrorism against us when it is critical to do so. The way you Dems,want it he has absolutely no power what so ever. Well we the people are fed up with you & your hatred of him & our country. You better be very careful as all this is going to come back & bite you in the,ass soon,

  52. No they did not forget. All the Democrats do is change the rules to suit their needs no matter the cost or consequences! They are anti-American, anti- constitution, and hell bent on destroying America from within. These conservative writers need to stop sugar coating these articles and start calling out exactly what Democrats are.

  53. So the House can Constition when the want? Make it wrong when Trump is Prez., then change back if the Demons get in as Prez. Sounds like double standards, Right, Dim wits?

  54. Boy…. you on your Hemp again?

  55. I agree. OBAMA =One Bad Ass Mistake America. Odumass is a rag top. Not even born in America. He was NOT even a president. It was 8 years of “Rag Time”

  56. THANK YOU ADAM SHIFF AND NANCY, BY YOUR LIES AND IMPEACHMENT YOU HAVE ENSURED MYSELF AND MILLIONS OF OTHERS WILL VOTE 2020 FOR PRESIDENT TRUMP AND END DEMOCRAT PARTY

  57. You’re talking about obama, correct? He was the worst ever, even worse than Jimmy Carter. Trump will go down in history as the best President ever!!!!!

  58. Teach those ignorant S.O.B’S. Well said! How do you think he got the money for that 18 million dollar house. We paid for it. He’s the one who supplied the war equipment. Do you think it was an accident they were left behind? What government would knowingly leave behind 1 billing dollars worth of equipment. He’s the reason that ISIS was born. If he wasn’t black or a Democrat then he wouldn’t have been allowed to be president because he wasn’t a natural born citizen. But apparently that’s ok with Nancy. Doesn’t the senate get the bill now? Don’t we have check and balances? Why is the house allowed to do whatever they want and is not being held accountable for breaking the constitution?

  59. Obama was and still is a POS!

  60. It is funny though that not all white males are hated just those of us that are not in goose step with the demoncrat agenda.

  61. No one was allowed to question Obozo. He was black well half black anyway, so every word said against whatever he did was racist. Now eventhough everyone is being racist against all white males, that doesn’t matter. President Trump’s only problem is he is a Republican. If he was a demoncrat they would not say a word against him. If a white male demoncrat had of been elected then there would not be nearly as much hatred by the left for white males. GOD BLESS AMERICA AND PRESIDENT TRUMP.

  62. Trump has not gone to war, He Executed a General that has already Killed over 600.++ Young Americans!! At Present Time WE are not at war . Trump IS THE COMANDER IN SCHIEF. the head of all the US. Military. Get your fackt’s straight.

  63. NoBummer, Not ewen an American, Has admitted on many Occasions that he was born in Kenya and mention his Muslim faith, Ewen said Micheal and I’.? NOBUMMER GAVE HIS OWN COMPANY SOLARA $. 32.BILLION, THAN DECLEARED BANKRUPTSY.?? HE STOLE 78.BILLION FROM SSA. MISPLACED 8.7.BILLIONS FROM USSD. NEWER FOUND OR REPLACED?? 12.3.BILLION DISAPEARED FROM HUD.?? PENTAGON MISSING 10.5.TRILLION.?? THE FEDS MISSING 16.7.TRILLION. GAVE AWAY OVER A TRILLION TO IRAN AND THE MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD (HUMA ABEDIN) PUT THE USA 20.TRILLION IN THE RED. THAT WEE THE TAXPAYERS ARE PAYING 33.BILLION IN INTEREST ALONE, EVERY YEAR.!! THIS ALL HAPPEND ON NOBUMMERS WATCH. FANTASTIC PRESIDENT WONT YOU SAY.??!! PS: TRUMP IS NOT TAKING A SALARY. IT IS ALL DONATED. AND NOBUMMER HAD OVER 100. 4. PINOKIOS. MAX LIES. WaPo.

  64. Ignorant I bliss
    You are obviously VERY ignorant!
    Trump is the BEST President EVER! Trump forever!

  65. The worst President in my life time!!!

  66. Yes please…the Dems are sickening!!!! The silent minority is still watching…

  67. Meant to say: THIS IS ONLY ONE THING THAT OBAMA GAVE US.

  68. In Obama Care, ACA,, that states that in March 23, 2023 that everyone will have to accept the MARK OF THE BEAST.

    That means that NO ONE will be able to drive cars, buy food, keep your job, travel. We that refuse to take the Mark will be considered the Enemy of the U.S.A.

    Oh! Yes! Will not be able to go to the hospital without the Mark.

    THIS IS ONLY ONE THING THAT OBAMA GAME US.

    We had the Worse President EVER.

  69. You all are forgetting Congress has sole authority to go to war not want to be dictator trump

  70. According to the very fake and Corrupt press and MSM, The Saudies took down the WTC. 1.- 2. & 7. on 9/11 -01.? Osama Bin Ladin a Saudie Arabian himself, So why did Bush attack Iraq and Killed Sadam Hussain?? (Compeared to a Killer General??) NoBummer and Killary Attacked Libya and Killed Quadafi, or had him Killed, all this was OK, No Protest or Coments from the DemonRatPack.?? So how are we sopose to look at the DemonRats and their Hypocrasy?? Dont know why any one will Vote for those Slave-Traders/Owners to start with. Newer keept a promis in their or my life-time, KKK. ALL DEMONRATS.!! they got Nothing to Put on the Table but Emthy Promises. Trump has Covered it all, Nothing left for the Lying Crooks/Criminals.

  71. The Good News Gospel is that Republican Christian Donald Trump will get his FULL 8 years in office. Trump wants America to become 100% REPUBLICAN CHRISTIAN. America has improved in every way, shape and form since Trump took office. There are a few small things that are still going on but, in general, things have become MUCH better and SOON when Trump become President.

  72. The problem is that Barack Obama made phonecalls to al-Qaeda and ISIS asking them to take over America and Israel. Obama said that “islam is better than Christianity” but our Good Republican Christian President Donald Trump said that “America needs to become Christian by becoming Republican”. All pastors and televangelists support Republican Trump which is Good News For America!

  73. 1/10
    I want to thank God for our Good Republican Christian President Donald Trump because Trump is MAKING AMERICA GREAT with His Good Skills and Training as Commander-In-Chief!

  74. you are correct

  75. Everybody has a opinion, so why do you have all the answers.

  76. Saddam Hussein Would still be around if Obama had followed their plan for Trump.

  77. YOU NEED TO STOP LYING ON OBAMA!!! YOU LOVE THAT NAME, BECAUSE OBAMA HAVE NEVER DISGRACED THE UNITED STATED AS DONALD TRUMP HAS. HE HAS CALL BALL PLAYER SON OF BI—-‘S AND EVERY THING HE DOES IT OK. HE LOVES OBAMA’S NAME AND HE HAVE LIED SO MANY TIMES I CAN’T COUNT THEM! ALL SENATORS THAT HAVE BEEN IN OFFICE FOR YEARS NEED TO GO, ALL THEY ARE THINKING ABOUT IS A PAY CHECK AT THE EXPENSE OF THE WORKING AMERICANS. I NO ELECTRONICALLY VOTE SHOULD PUT THE PRESIDENT END OFFICE AND WE DO NOT KNOW WHO THEY ARE. I VOTED FOR THE PERSON I WANTED, THEN MY VOTE ID NOT COUNTED. I DON’T NEED FOR ANYONE TO VOTE FOR ME!!!TRUMP IS A LOW PRESIDENT FOR THE USA.

  78. Libs are idiots!!
    Look at them. Nothing our President is doing gets approval from these dumb libtards.It is getting real annoying.

  79. If the evil liberal demoncrat Nazi’s Commie Muslim party of traitors to America continue to go unpunished (academia, fake news (CNN, MSNBC, Fox and you know the rest)Hollywood ,RINOs etc)! They’ll continue their treasonous ways! Enough is enough with this Deep State BS! Drain the rat infested swamp, ASAP! President Trump!

  80. And anyone expects different??? It has been like this since it was clear that Donald Trump was going to be elected. The dems consider themselves as the only people that can govern. It is their way or the highway. The American People do not matter.

  81. They didn’t forget they figured everyone else did they just didn’t care because it was Obama

Comments are closed.